Like a number of others, the US-orchestrated regime change which took place in Guatemala in 1954 happened because Communism was supposedly gaining a foothold in the country.  Refugee and non-refugee Tutsis, Hutu refugees, and other ethnic groups in Zaire started fighting and attacking one another. The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, (known in Iran as the "28 Mordad coup"), orchestrated by the intelligence agencies of the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation Boot") and the United States (under the name "TPAJAX Project") replaced Mosaddegh with the CIA's choice, General Fazlollah Zahedi, through decrees dictated by the CIA's Donald Wilber.  It is possible that Saddam visited the U.S. embassy in Cairo during his exile. Such groups fought a guerrilla war against the U.S. occupation in what were known as the "Caco Wars. ", Richard Sale of United Press International, citing Adel Darwish and other experts, has reported that the October 1959 assassination attempt on Iraqi Prime Minister Abd al-Karim Qasim involving a young Saddam Hussein and other Ba'athist conspirators was a collaboration between the CIA and Egyptian intelligence.  General Douglas MacArthur advanced up the 38th Parallel on the Peninsula and intended to end the Northern government. The rebellion had support from the Soviet Union and many other countries in the Eastern Bloc.  In August 2019, United Nations investigators said the US, UK and France may potentially be complicit in committing war crimes in Yemen by selling weapons to the Saudi-led coalition which is deliberately using starvation against the civilian population as a warfare tactic. Vietnamese forces withdrew and the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) enforced the ceasefire and disarmament. Moreover, we told the Chinese explicitly that in our view Pol Pot was an abomination and that the United States would have nothing to do with him—directly or indirectly. The U.S. government tried to keep the war secret from the American population by having the CIA Special Activities Division (Operation Millpond, Operation Barrel Roll and Operation Steel Tiger) back the war and by using tribesmen of the Hmong people that it trained, armed and paid to wage the war.  In August, 2011, the U.S. government called on Syrian President Assad to "step aside" and imposed an oil embargo against the Syrian government to bring it to its knees.  The United States organized a vast coalition of armed forces and UN peacekeeping forces and pushed back against the DPRK. " A fleet of 41 US vessels was sent to blockade the island as the US invaded. In Operation Paper, which began in early 1951 following Chinese involvement in the Korean War, the CIA hired Chinese nationalist militants from Taiwan and transported them to Burma, reinforcing the Kuomintang insurgency. 1: German Agriculture and Food Requirements, "Formation of the Federal Republic of Germany", "60ème Anniversaire de la Libération - La Libération de Paris - Sénat", "Bal de célébration des 70 ans de la libération de Paris sur le Parvis de l'Hôtel de Ville", http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2016/03/180_180890.html, https://dangerouscitizens.columbia.edu/1946-1949/witness-of-the/1/index.html, "Jose Figueres Ferrer Is Dead at 83; Led Costa Ricans to Democracy", "Jose Figueres, 82; Former Costa Rican President", "Albanian Dossier: CIA and British MI6 in Albania", "H-Diplo Roundtable on "America's Great Game: The CIA's Secret Arabists and the Shaping of the Modern Middle East" | H-Diplo | H-Net", "Mapped: The 7 Governments the U.S. Has Overthrown", "Trouble in the Golden Triangle: The United States, Taiwan and the 93rd Nationalist Division", "Operation Paper: The United States and Drugs in Thailand and Burma" 米国とタイ・ビルマの麻薬, "Military Armistice in Korea: A Case Study for Strategic Leaders", "Mossaddegh: Eccentric nationalist begets strange history", "Newly Declassified Documents Confirm U.S. From the period of 1998 to 2000, just over $100,000,000 was channeled from the U.S. State Department through Quangos to opposition parties in order to bring about a democratic end to the government of the long-standing president Slobodan Milošević in Yugoslavia.  Senator Dick Clark stated "In my judgment, U.S. involvement in Zaire defies justification.  Downes argues,. The U.S. began sending soldiers and trainers into Rwanda and training FPR commanders in the U.S. before the war in 1995.  Some scholars are now referring to the mass killings as a genocide.. Beyer, Rick, "The Greatest Stories Never Told" 2003: A&E Television Networks / The History Channel, pp.  An internal CIA memorandum states that a 1973 Office of Inspector General investigation into the murder disclosed "quite extensive Agency involvement with the plotters."  While the United States did not ratify it, the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 had much input from the United States.  However, these allegations are rejected by Steve Coll ("If the CIA did have contact with bin Laden during the 1980s and subsequently covered it up, it has so far done an excellent job"), Peter Bergen ("The theory that bin Laden was created by the CIA is invariably advanced as an axiom with no supporting evidence"), and Jason Burke ("It is often said that bin Laden was funded by the CIA. The date of the coup in the Persian calendar. " Coup leaders Cédras and François had received military training in the United States. , During the Cold War, the United States frequently intervened in elections and engaged in attempts at regime change, both covertly and overtly. American officials sought to exacerbate Indonesia's monetary crisis by having the International Monetary Fund oppose Suharto's efforts to establish a currency board to stabilize the rupiah, thereby provoking discontent. Examples include regimes in the Philippines, Korea, the Eastern portion of China, and much of Europe.  In 2002 Congress passed the "Iraq Resolution" which authorized the president to "use any means necessary" against Iraq. Nelson Goodsell, "Pushing new African countries toward Communist world?". The operation would become a failure.The operation was declassified in 2006, due to the Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act and is now available in the National Archives. , In December 1941, the US joined the Allies in war against the Empire of Japan, a monarchy. On June 25, 1950 the DPRK invaded the RoK exchanged fire and the DPRK quickly advanced to take much of the country. Since the end of the Cold War, we've increasingly favored a more overt and aggressive policy of regime change — first in Afghanistan, then in Iraq, then in Libya, and now, possibly, in Iran. ", The Center for Justice and Accountability, Report of the UN Truth Commission on El Salvador, "El Salvador : des guérilleros au pouvoir", "A Year of Reckoning: El Salvador a Decade After the Assassination of Archbishop Romero", "How U.S. Advisors Run the War in El Salvador", "How U.S.  Henry Hyde, U.S. House intelligence committee member, stated that the USA provided "supplies and technical assistance in terms of clandestine newspapers, broadcasting, propaganda, money, organizational help and advice". The Cacos (military group) were originally armed militias of formerly enslaved persons who rebelled and took control of mountainous areas following the Haitian Revolution in 1804. United States forces were also instrumental in ending the rule of Adolf Hitler over Germany and of Benito Mussolini over Italy.  However, senior National Security Council official Robert Komer wrote to President John F. Kennedy on February 8, 1963 that the Iraqi coup "is almost certainly a net gain for our side ... CIA had excellent reports on the plotting, but I doubt either they or UK should claim much credit for it. Ernest Volkman, "CIA backs mercenary recruiting". , After the new Bolshevik government withdrew from World War I, the U.S. military together with forces of its Allies invaded Russia in 1918.  In 1968 the Viet Cong conducted the failed Tet Offensive. The US itself is the worst case of human rights abuse, and in much direr need of “regime change” than any other country on this planet. " CIA support for Solidarity included money, equipment and training, which was coordinated by Special Operations. Between 1960 and 1969, the Soviet government funded the Communist Party of Chile at a rate of between $50,000 and $400,000 annually. Kabila, after taking the capital, ended Zaire and declared the Democratic Republic of Congo. " Brzezinski acknowledged that "I encourage[d] the Chinese to support [Khmer Rouge leader] Pol Pot ... we could never support him, but China could." The U.S. first tried gaining influence among the rebels by supplying them with "No less than $50,000" from 1957 to 1958. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-105publ338/html/PLAW-105publ338.htm, https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-112/pdf/STATUTE-112-Pg3178.pdf, "Iraqi Defector 'Curveball' Admits WMD Lies, Is Proud of Tricking U.S.", "I am not convinced, Fischer tells Rumsfeld", "Hussein's Prewar Ties To Al-Qaeda Discounted", "President Delivers State of the Union Address", "A nation at war: The attack; U.S. and British troops push into Iraq as missiles strike Baghdad compound", http://www.vanityfair.com/news/2008/04/gaza200804, http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0525/p07s02-wome.html, http://www.middle-east-online.com/english/?id=19358, http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/U-S-training-Fatah-in-anti-terror-tactics-2465370.php, "U.S. secretly backed Syrian opposition groups, cables released by WikiLeaks show", "UK-based Syrian TV station denies secret funding from US government", http://www.cfr.org/syria/calling-regime-change-syria/p25677, https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424053111903639404576516144145940136, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/jan/25/us-syrian-regime-change-isis-priority, https://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2014/04/23/306233248/cia-is-quietly-ramping-up-aid-to-syrian-rebels-sources-say, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/mar/08/west-training-syrian-rebels-jordan, "Syrian Opposition Groups Stop Pretending", "Obama Says Syrian Leader Bashar al-Assad Must Go", "U.S. priority on Syria no longer focused on 'getting Assad out': Haley", https://au.news.yahoo.com/world/a/34856857/tillerson-says-assads-fate-up-to-syrian-people/#page1, "Trump ends covert CIA program to arm anti-Assad rebels in Syria, a move sought by Moscow", "Rex Tillerson again insists Syrian leader Bashar Assad must go", "Strike on Assad for use of chemical agents unlikely to advance wider U.S. goals in Syria", http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2008/07/07/preparing-the-battlefield, "Did Hillary Clinton stand by as Honduras coup ushered in era of violence? involvement. Pursuant to a treaty with the Japanese government(Message of Emperor), in 1950 the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands took over and ruled Okinawa and the rest of the Ryukyu Islands until 1972. On August 28, 1945 these committees formed the temporary national government of Korea, naming it the People's Republic of Korea (PRK) a couple of weeks later. The goal of the operation was to bolster the pro-Western Lebanese government of President Camille Chamoun against internal opposition and threats from Syria and Egypt. " Jimmy Carter responded by saying "our friendship and aid historically for Zaire has not been predicated on their perfection in dealing with human rights. Calderon was a right wing figure who had support of the Catholic Church and the elite. In the latter half of the 19th century, the U.S. government initiated actions for regime change mainly in Latin America and the southwest Pacific, including the Spanish–American and Philippine–American wars. [page needed]. Instances of the United States overthrowing, or attempting to overthrow, a foreign government since the Second World War. Serbia's October Revolution: Evaluating International Efforts Promoting Democratic Breakthrough", "U.S. 404–406, Blum, William, "Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II," (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995), pp. From the discovery of oil in Iran in the late nineteenth century major powers exploited the weakness of the Iranian government to obtain concessions that many believed failed to give Iran a fair share of the profits. Za'im had extensive connections to CIA operatives, although the exact nature of U.S. involvement in the coup remains highly controversial. Albania was in chaos after World War II and the country was not as focused on peacetime conferences in comparison to other European nations, while having suffered high casualties.  The Contras ended fighting soon afterwards. On 12 August 1944, German forces retreated from the Athens area two days ahead of British landings there, ending the occupation. In February 2011, amid the "Arab Spring", a revolution broke out against him, spreading from the second city Benghazi (where an interim government was set up on 27 February), to the capital Tripoli, sparking Libyan Civil War (2011). At first the Carter Administration tried to be friendly with the new government, but the Reagan Administration that came after had a much more Anti-communist foreign policy.  They signed the U.S.-Hungarian Peace Treaty in 1921 solidifying their status and borders with the United States. We cast ourselves as the dull-witted Goliath, in a world of eager young Davids. As well coup attempts were made against Noriega and skrimishes broke out between U.S. and Panamanian troops. CIA officer Miles Copeland Jr. recounted in his memoirs that Roosevelt helped coordinate the coup during three prior meetings with the plotters (including Nasser, the future Egyptian president); this has not been confirmed by declassified documents but is partially supported by circumstantial evidence. 209-210, sfn error: no target: CITEREFHoskyns1965 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLaFontaine1986 (, sfnp error: no target: CITEREFVillafana2017 (, sfnp error: no target: CITEREFMartell2018 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFNugent2004 (, Castle, Timothy, "At War in the Shadow of Vietnam: United States Military Aid to the Royal Lao Government, 1955–1975," (, US Library of Congress, Federal Research Division, Library of Congress Country Studies, "Laos: The Attempt to Restore Neutrality,", Castle, Timothy, "At War in the Shadow of Vietnam: United States Military Aid to the Royal Lao Government, 1955–1975," (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993), pp. , Fatah launched a bloody war against the Haniyeh government. From the discovery of oil in Iran in the late nineteenth century major powers exploited the weakness of the Iranian government to obtain concessions that many believed failed to give Iran a fair share of the profits. Of the roughly one hundred cases of externally imposed regime change in that period, the United States has been responsible for more than twenty. A Constitutional assembly was elected, a new Constitution was enacted, and full democracy returned with the Second Costa Rican Republic. Cedras capitulated; however, he did not immediately disband the armed forces. Regime change is nothing new to the United States. Peter Dale Scott, Asia-Pacific Journal Japan Focus, 1 Nov. 2010, Volume 8 | Issue 44 | Number 2, William R. Corson, The Armies of Ignorance: The Rise of the American Intelligence Empire (New York: Dial Press/James Wade, 1977), 320–22, Lintner, Bertil, "Heroin and Highland Insurgency in the Golden Triangle. " However, research by Reiter and Goran Peic finds that foreign-imposed regime change can raise the probability of civil war. On September 8, 1945, the United States government landed forces in Korea and thereafter established the United States Army … The FSLN (Sandinista National Liberation Front) had overthrown the US friendly Somoza family in 1979.  Milošević's presidency was succeeded by that of Vojislav Koštunica, who opposed the extradition of his predecessor to the Hague Tribunal. During World War II, the United States helped overthrow many Nazi Germany or imperial Japanese puppet regimes. New York: Seven Stories Press.  Although Operation Cyclone officially ended in 1989 with the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, U.S. government funding for the Mujahideen continued through 1992, when the Mujahideen overran the Afghan government in Kabul. Bush became president he continued to aid Savimbi. At first, The Eisenhower Administration attempted to poison him with his toothpaste, but this was abandoned.  A former high-ranking U.S. official told Marion Farouk–Sluglett and Peter Sluglett that Iraqi Ba'athists, including Saddam, "had made contact with the American authorities in the late 1950s and early 1960s.". Transcription / Notes. 10086), "Under the Shadow of the Big Stick: U.S. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. It said the U.S. could intervene anytime against a government that was not approved, forced Cuba to accept U.S. influence, and limited Cuban abilities to make foreign relations.  The CIA sent CIA official Dr. Sydney Gottlieb with a poison to liaison with an African CIA asset code-named WI/Rogue who was to execute Lumumba, but Lumumba went into hiding before the operation was completed. Whether that was a wise way to proceed is another question. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center, 2005. p. 147. The U.S. occupied Haiti from 1915 to 1934. The United States had been at war with Ottoman Tripolitania (an Ottoman colony in North Africa indirectly ruled through a pasha) to stop them from capturing United States ships and enslaving crew members from the United States. It is worth reflecting on the long shadow of regime change behavior during the Cold War and post-Cold War periods in particular. The US Congress’ $900 billion Covid-19 relief bill was packaged with $1.4 trillion in omnibus spending that includes tens of billions for war, weapons, and regime change abroad, from anti-Russia and anti-China initiatives to $3.3 billion for Israel’s military.